Foreign Currency Translation

In the Group companies’ separate financial statements, all of the receivables and liabilities in foreign currencies are translated at the rate prevailing on the reporting date, regardless of whether or not they have been hedged. Forward contracts that, from an economic point of view, are used for hedging are reported at fair value. The resulting translation differences are recognized in profit or loss or, if hedges are in place, recognized directly in equity under other equity items.

The financial statements of consolidated companies that are prepared in foreign currencies are translated on the basis of the functional currency principle using the modified reporting date rate method, in which balances are translated from the functional currency to the reporting currency using the average rates of exchange prevailing on the reporting date, while income statement amounts are translated using the average exchange rates of the period. As the Group’s subsidiaries conduct their business in financial, economic and organizational autonomy, their functional currencies are basically identical to the respective local currency. Any net gains or losses arising from the translation of equity are recognized directly in equity under other equity items. Translation differences resulting from divergent exchange rates in the statement of income are likewise included there. If Group companies are removed from the scope of consolidation, any translation difference is reclassified from equity to profit or loss.

The exchange rates between the most important currencies reported in these financial statements and the euro were as follows:

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ISO Code


Exchange rate as of


Average exchange rate





Dec. 31, 2017


Dec. 31, 2016



























US dollar











Chinese renminbi






















Cash Flow
Cash flow represents the movement of cash and cash equivalents into or out of a business activity during a finite period. Net cash flow is the sum of cash flow from operating activities (excluding changes in advance payments received) and cash flow from long-term investing activities (before securities), including additions due to finance leases.