Biotechnology...// Biotech processes use living cells or enzymes to transform and produce substances. Depending on the application, a distinction is made between red, green and white biotechnology. Red biotechnology: medicinal-pharmaceutical applications. Green biotechnology: agricultural applications. White biotechnology: biotech-based products and industrial processes, e.g. in the chemical, textile and food industries.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)...// This gas naturally constitutes 0.04% of air. Carbon dioxide is generated during the combustion of coal, natural gas and other organic substances. As a greenhouse gas in the atmosphere it contributes to global warming. Since the start of industrialization (circa 1850), its concentration in air has risen from approx. 300 to 385 ppm (parts per million). This value is increasing by around 2 ppm every year.
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)...// COD is a measure of wastewater contamination. This parameter defines the amount of oxygen necessary to fully oxidize all organic material in wastewater.
Chlorosilane...// A compound of silicon, chlorine and hydrogen. In the semiconductor industry, mainly trichlorosilane is used to make polysilicon and for the epitaxial deposition of silicon.
Combined heat and power plant...// Combined heat and power (CHP) plants generate both electricity and useful heat. With this system, the input energy (e.g. fuel oil or natural gas) can be used much more efficiently than in conventional systems with separate facilities. Thanks to this conservation of primary energy, CHP plants emit significantly less carbon dioxide than conventional power plants.
Cyclodextrins...// Cyclodextrins belong to a family of cyclic oligosaccharides (i.e. ring-shaped sugar molecules). Cyclodextrins are able to encapsulate fragrances or release active ingredients at a controlled rate. WACKER FINE CHEMICALS produces and markets cyclodextrins.
Cysteine...// Cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid. It belongs to the non-essential amino acids because it can be formed in the body. It is used, for example, as an additive in food and cough mixtures. Cysteine and its derivatives are a business field at WACKER FINE CHEMICALS.
Dispersible polymer powders...// Created by drying dispersions in spray or disc dryers. VINNAPAS® polymer powders from WACKER are recommended as binders in the construction industry, e.g. for tile adhesives, self-leveling compounds and repair mortars. The powders improve adhesion, cohesion, flexibility and flexural strength, as well as water-retention and processing properties.
Distillation...// Distillation is used to separate the components of liquid mixtures. The process is based on differences in the liquids’ boiling points.
Ethylene...// Ethylene is a colorless, highly reactive gas and a key chemical-industry raw material.
Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS)...// Systems for thermally insulating buildings and thus for increasing energy efficiency. EIFS are made up of a combination of materials: adhesive mortar, insulation board, base coat, glass fiber mesh and finish coat. VINNAPAS® polymer powders from WACKER ensure that the insulation material bonds firmly to the mortar and finish coat. As a result, the insulating system offers greater durability and much more resistance to weathering and wear.
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol...// The GHG Protocol is an internationally recognized instrument for quantifying and controlling greenhouse gas emissions. The standards outlined in the GHG Protocol have been jointly developed by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute (WRI) since 1998. The GHG Protocol specifies how an organization should calculate its greenhouse-gas emissions and how emission-reducing programs should be conducted.
Hydrogen chloride (HCI)...// The chemical industry uses HCl to generate valuable intermediates from organic and inorganic raw materials. The colorless gas dissolves in water to form hydrochloric acid.
Ozonation...// Wastewater treatment method to oxidatively degrade pollutants with the help of ozone (O3), a highly reactive oxygen compound.
Polysilicon...// Hyperpure polycrystalline silicon from WACKER POLYSILICON is used for manufacturing wafers for the electronics and solar industries. To produce it, metallurgical-grade silicon is converted into liquid trichlorosilane, highly distilled and deposited in hyperpure form at 1,000 °C.
Primary energy...// Primary energy is obtained from naturally occurring sources such as coal, gas or wind. Secondary energy, in contrast, is derived from primary energy via a transformation process (which often involves energy losses); examples include electricity, heat and hydrogen.
Silica...// Collective term for compounds with the general formula SiO2.nH2O. Synthetic silicas are obtained from sand. Based on their method of production, a distinction is made between precipitated silicas and pyrogenic silicas (such as WACKER HDK®). Pyrogenic silica is generated by flame hydrolysis and has an almost pore-free surface. Pyrogenic silica is used as reinforcing filler for rubber compounds and sealants, matting of paints, and toothpaste additives.
Silicon...// After oxygen, the most common element on the planet. In nature, silicon occurs without exception in the form of compounds, chiefly silicon dioxide and silicates. Silicon is obtained through energy-intensive reaction of quartz sand with carbon and is the most important raw material in the electronics industry.
Silicon wafer...// A silicon wafer is a circular disc with a thickness of between approximately 200 and 800 μm, and is used by the semiconductor industry for the manufacture of semiconductor devices, i.e. integrated circuits and discrete components.
Silicone...// General term used to describe compounds of organic molecules and silicon. According to their areas of application, silicones can be classified as fluids, resins or rubber grades. Silicones are characterized by a myriad of outstanding properties. Typical areas of application include construction, the electrical and electronics industries, shipping and transportation, textiles and paper coatings.
Siloxane...// Systematic name given to compounds comprising silicon atoms linked together via oxygen atoms and with the remaining valences occupied with hydrogen or organic groups. Siloxanes are the building blocks for the polymers (polysiloxane and polyorganosiloxane) that form silicones.